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Good aggregates for construction possess several key qualities, including:

Strength: Aggregates should be strong enough to withstand the applied loads without undergoing excessive deformation or failure. This strength is typically measured by various tests such as compressive strength, impact strength, and abrasion resistance.

Durability: Durability is essential for long-term performance. Aggregates should resist weathering, chemical attack, and degradation over time. They should maintain their structural integrity under different environmental conditions.

Hardness: Hard aggregates can provide better resistance to wear and tear, making them suitable for applications such as road construction and concrete production.

Particle Shape: Ideally, aggregates should have a well-graded particle size distribution and a shape that promotes good interlocking between particles. Angular or cubical-shaped particles tend to provide better stability and strength compared to rounded or irregularly shaped particles.

Cleanliness: Aggregates should be free from impurities such as clay, silt, organic matter, or other deleterious materials. Clean aggregates enhance the bonding between particles and the cement matrix in concrete, improving overall strength and durability.

Specific Gravity: The specific gravity of aggregates affects the density and strength of concrete. Aggregates with higher specific gravity tend to produce dense concrete with better mechanical properties.

Porosity: Low porosity in aggregates reduces the absorption of water and moisture, which can lead to durability issues such as freeze-thaw damage and chemical deterioration.

Soundness: Sound aggregates do not contain substances that can expand or undergo chemical reactions, leading to internal stresses and eventual deterioration of the concrete.

Gradation: Well-graded aggregates with a variety of particle sizes ensure proper compaction and reduce voids in the concrete mixture, enhancing its strength and workability.

Adhesion: Aggregates should have a surface that allows for good adhesion with the cement paste, ensuring a strong bond and minimizing the risk of segregation or bleeding in the concrete mix.

Overall, the selection of good aggregates is crucial for achieving high-quality, durable, and structurally sound construction materials. Testing and quality control measures are often employed to ensure that aggregates meet the required specifications for specific construction applications.

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